Nonrandom Evolution

“Extinction is the rule. Survival is the exception.”


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No, Chimpanzees Cannot Give Birth to Humans: (And, It Doesn’t Disprove Evolution…)

This will be as brief and as simplistic as possible for obvious reasons.

Humans share approximately 98.5% of their DNA with chimpanzees. So, for this example we will need to temporarily accept the premise that DNA can be mutated (changed) by at least 1.5%. The problem is that mutations are entirely random meaning that a mechanism potentially capable of mutating ~1.5% of a chimpanzee’s DNA to exactly match human DNA could also mutate it 1.1% or 0.45% or 0.37940%, or 1.20238943029423%, or 1.49% or 1.499% or 1.4999% or 1.49999%, or 1.499999%, or 1.4999999%, or 1.49999999%, or 1.49999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999…%, etc., ad infinitum, and in a virtually infinite number of “directions.” (This is known as an infinite series in calculus.) And, since there are only a finite number of specific genetic codes which could produce a human, to quote Douglas Adams, “any finite number divided by infinity is as close to nothing as makes no odds…” (And, that’s without mentioning that 98.5% is an average, meaning that slightly more or less DNA can be shared between certain individuals of both species.)  Continue reading

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On the Irrationality of Conspiracy Theorists

“If a man is offered a fact which goes against his instincts [or beliefs], he will scrutinize it closely, and unless the evidence is overwhelming, he will refuse to believe it. If, on the other hand, he is offered something which affords a reason for acting in accordance to his instincts, he will accept it even on the slightest evidence. The origin of myths is explained in this way.” — Bertrand Russell (1929)  Continue reading


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Europa, Water, and Life — [An Astrobiological Perspective]

Europa, Water, and Life – [An Astrobiological Perspective]

Without a doubt, Europa is one of the prime candidates in our search for alien life in the Solar System. Europa is one of Jupiter’s satellites, and you can think of it as big ball of ice filled with saltwater with some surprising estimates showing that Europa could quite possibly have a greater overall amount of water than does Earth.  It’s currently unknown how thick the ice shell is, with estimates ranging all the way from 3 km to 170 km thick! (I’ll explain this in further detail later.) But, we know life requires more than just a liquid like water to survive, it needs energy, too! Let’s dig in!               Continue reading