Nonrandom Evolution

“Extinction is the rule. Survival is the exception.”


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Europa, Water, and Life — [An Astrobiological Perspective]

Europa, Water, and Life – [An Astrobiological Perspective]

Without a doubt, Europa is one of the prime candidates in our search for alien life in the Solar System. Europa is one of Jupiter’s satellites, and you can think of it as big ball of ice filled with saltwater with some surprising estimates showing that Europa could quite possibly have a greater overall amount of water than does Earth.  It’s currently unknown how thick the ice shell is, with estimates ranging all the way from 3 km to 170 km thick! (I’ll explain this in further detail later.) But, we know life requires more than just a liquid like water to survive, it needs energy, too! Let’s dig in!               Continue reading


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An Introduction: What is the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?

At last gleams of light have come, & I am almost convinced (quite contrary to opinion I started with) that species are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable.” — Charles Darwin in a letter to Joseph Hooker, January 11, 1844

An Introduction: What is the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? (The Evidence for Evolution #2) Continue reading


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The Evidence for Evolution (Intro to Natural Selection)

“When it was introduced in the 1940s, penicillin was a miracle drug, especially effective at curing infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (“staph”). In 1941, the drug could wipe out every strain of staph in the world. Now, seventy years later, more than 95% of staph strains are resistant to penicillin.” — Dr. Jerry Coyne, Why Evolution is True, p. 131

In Why Evolution is True, Dr. Coyne used this example in the chapter entitled, “The Engine of Evolution.” The engine he’s referring to is none other than natural selection, and this little insight regarding the adaptability (evolution) of Staphylococcus aureus is excellent evidence for the theory of evolution by natural selection. It’s my go to “proof,” if you will, when someone asks me to provide proof of evolution Continue reading